Włodzimierz Kotoński. Photo by Andrzej Rybczyński
Włodzimierz Kotoński was a composer, teacher and pioneer of electronic music in Poland. Born in Warsaw on 23 August 1925, he died on 4 September 2014. After studying composition in Warsaw, from 1957 onwards Kotoński started experimenting with electronic sound transformation. He became the first contributor to the Polish Radio Experimental Studio, and also the first person in Poland to compose an autonomous work for tape, Study For One Cymbal Stroke, which premiered at the Warsaw Autumn Festival in 1960. Apart from his regular contributions to the studio, he also worked at other electronic music centres across Europe throughout his career. From 1967 onwards Kotoński taught composition in Warsaw and at other academies around the world.