Composer and conductor Krzysztof Penderecki was born in Dębica on 23 November 1933. He studied music at Jagiellonian University and the Academy of Music in Kraków. After graduating from the Academy of Music, Penderecki became a teacher and began his career as a composer at the 1959 Warsaw Autumn festival. Penderecki is associated with traditional instruments, but from 1958–62 he also explored electronic music. Thanks to Józef Patkowski, he was granted access to the arsenal of Polish Radio Experimental Studio in Warsaw.